Social and political philosophy essays

Here the form of acting does not imply a recognition of right but rather is an act of coercion through exercise of force. Having done this, they then become subject to the will of the majority.

He personifies the Laws of Athens, and, speaking in their voice, explains that he has acquired an overwhelming obligation to obey the Laws because they have made his entire way of life, and even the fact of his very existence, possible.

To some philosophers, a theory of justice based on reciprocity or fairness, or fair play is an attractive middle ground between a thoroughgoing concern with individual well-being and a thoroughgoing concern with social well-being.

It manifests itself both formally and informally. Thus, the bondsman gains a measure of independence in his subjugation out of fear of death. Sometimes one party will need more support than the other and this can switch at different times depending on the life situation of each party.

Must it be directly to the original benefactor, or will providing a comparable favor to someone else be appropriate. Another aspect of qualitative fit is what counts subjectively, for the recipient, as a response in-kind.

Hegel: Social and Political Thought

It may also be that there is something to be gained, Social and political philosophy essays, from considering what obligations of generalized reciprocity present generations of human beings may have to future ones. The behavior observed was that the person offering the proposal would act less strategically than would the one offering in the ultimatum game.

Further, its requirement of an in-kind response invites us to calibrate both the quality and the quantity of the response.

Reciprocity (social and political philosophy)

Rousseau had previously won the same essay contest with an earlier essay, commonly referred to as the First Discourse. See expressions of dominance. After these contracts are established, however, then society becomes possible, and people can be expected to keep their promises, cooperate with one another, and so on.

We go beyond the criminal's defiance of the universal by substituting for the abstract conception of personality the more concrete conception of subjectivity. People who communicate through self-confidence and expressive, composed behavior tend to be successful in achieving their goals and maintaining good relationships.

Gauthier has an advantage over Hobbes when it comes to developing the argument that cooperation between purely self-interested agents is possible. Controlling abusers may use multiple tactics to exert power and control over their victims.

Rather, it may be that the recipient should be given what he needs, in some objective sense, whether he ever comes to appreciate that it is good for him. According to Hobbes, this extends to human behavior.

According to Hobbes, even the reason that adults care for small children can be explicated in terms of the adults' own self-interest he claims that in saving an infant by caring for it, we become the recipient of a strong sense of obligation in one who has been helped to survive rather than allowed to die.

Therefore, everyone begins to control themselves and behave according to society's rules and norms. Modern patriarchy is characterized by a contractual relationship between men, and part of that contract involves power over Social and political philosophy essays.

Because of the possibilities of infringement, the positive form of commands in this sphere are Social and political philosophy essays.

Bridal showers are examples of the many-to-one variety. Extreme obedience often requires internalization. This immediately justifies rules that are mutually advantageous, but it raises questions about requiring obedience from people whenever it turns out that they will be disadvantaged by following the rules, or can get away with disobeying them.

When we respond to people who have benefited us, it seems perverse to give them things they do not regard as benefits. Rather, the general will depends on the coming together periodically of the entire democratic body, each and every citizen, to decide collectively, and with at least near unanimity, how to live together, i.

Thus a political regime maintains power because people accept and obey its dictates, laws and policies. A strength of our journal is that most issues are thematic, developed by guest editors who are intimately involved with the topic.

The monarch is not a despot but rather a constitutional monarch, and he does not act in a capricious manner but is bound by a decision-making process, in particular to the recommendations and decisions of his cabinet supreme advisory council.

Coercive control Coercive power is the application of negative influences. These two principles determine the distribution of both civil liberties and social and economic goods.

It is important to note that this view, delineated in A Theory of Justice, has undergone substantial revisions by Rawls, and that he described his later view as "political liberalism". Hegel believed that the masses lacked the experience and political education to be directly involved in national elections and policy matters and that direct suffrage leads to electoral indifference and apathy.

These studies compared behavior done in different power given[ clarification needed ] situations. The synthesis of ethical life means that individuals not only act in conformity with the ethical good but that they recognize the authority of ethical laws.

The debates that take place in the Estates Assembly are to be open to the public, whereby citizens can become politically educated both about national affairs and the true character of their own interests. They can initiate conversations, change topics, interrupt others, initiate touch, and end discussions more easily than less powerful people.

The dilemma then is this: The concept of reciprocity[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Because reciprocation is influenced by personal circumstances and since people do not follow a set pattern like robots, reciprocation from a friend to a friend for example will vary in intensity and an absolutely consistent pattern cannot be expected.

The issue here is often how much relative power a person has in comparison to one's partner. Social Contract Theory. Social contract theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live.

Understanding Liberal Democracy presents notable work by Nicholas Wolterstorff at the intersection between political philosophy and religion. Alongside his influential earlier essays, it includes nine new essays in which Wolterstorff develops original lines of argument and stakes out novel positions regarding the nature of liberal democracy, human rights, and political authority.

The social norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people will respond to each other in similar ways—responding to gifts and kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own, and responding to harmful, hurtful acts from others with either indifference or some form of retaliation.

Such norms can be crude and mechanical, such as a literal reading of the eye-for-an-eye rule lex. In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people. The term "authority" is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social can be seen as evil or unjust, this sort of primitive exercise of power is historically endemic to humans, however as social beings the same concept is seen as good and as something.

Hegel: Social and Political Thought. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel () is one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. Social Justice is a quarterly peer-reviewed educational journal that seeks to inform theory and praxis on issues of equality and justice.

SJ was founded in and has been proudly independent since.

Social and political philosophy essays
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Social Contract Theory | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy